Web Services: Glossary

This is a glossary of terms related to Web services.

ADO (ActiveX Data Objects) - an application program interface from Microsoft that lets a programmer writing Windows applications get access to a relational or non-relational database from both Microsoft and other database providers.

ASP.NET - the next generation of Microsoft's Active Server Page (ASP); both ASP and ASP.NET allow a Web site builder to dynamically build Web pages on the fly by inserting queries to a relational database in the Web page.

BPEL (Business Process Execution Language) - an XML-based language designed to enable task-sharing for a distributed computing or grid computing environment - even across multiple organizations - using a combination of Web services.

BPML (Business Process Modeling Language) - an XML-based metalanguage for modeling business processes, much as XML is, itself, a metalanguage with the ability to model enterprise data.

business service provider (BSP)- a company that rents third-party software application packages to their customers.

C# - a new object-oriented programming language from Microsoft, which aims to combine the computing power of C++ with the programming ease of Visual Basic. Based on C++ and containing features similar to those of Java, C# is designed to work with Microsoft's .Net platform. C# simplifies programming through its use of Extensible Markup Language (XML) and Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) which allow access to a programming object or method without requiring the programmer to write additional code for each step.

CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture) - an architecture and specification for creating, distributing, and managing distributed program objects in a network.


cXML (Commerce XML) - a standard for the online exchange of business transaction information in common formats. It defines the structure of purchase orders, order acknowledgements, and other core e-business documents.

CallXML - a language based on XML that lets a company describe a phone-to-Web site application in terms of how the call would be handled at the Web site and how it would interact with the caller based on keyed-in or voice responses. CallXML is similar to other voice markup languages such as VoiceXML and Microsoft's WTE.

DIME (Direct Internet Message Encapsulation) - a specification that defines a format for attaching files to Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages between application programs over the Internet. DIME is similar to but somewhat simpler than the Internet's MIME protocol.

Document Object Model (DOM) - a programming interface from the W3C that lets a programmer create and modify HTML pages and XML documents as full-fledged program objects.

DSML (Directory Services Markup Language) - an XML application that enables different computer network directory formats to be expressed in a common format and shared by different directory systems.

DXL (Domino Extensible Language) - a specific version of Extensible Markup Language (XML) for Lotus Domino data.

DirXML - Novell's directory interchange software that uses XML to keep different directories synchronized.

employee self-service (ESS) - an increasingly prevalent trend in human resources management that allows an employee to handle many job-related tasks (such as applications for reimbursement, updates to personal information, and access to company information) that otherwise would have fallen to management or administrative staff.

ebXML (Electronic Business XML) - a project to use the Extensible Markup Language (XML) to standardize the secure exchange of business data, perhaps in time replacing Electronic Data Interchange (EDI).

EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) - a well-established standard (ANSI X12) format for exchanging business data.

infomediary - a Web site that provides specialized information on behalf of producers of goods and services and their potential customers.

Java Message Service - an application program interface from Sun Microsystems that supports the formal communication known as messaging between computers in a network.

Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) - an application program interface for connecting programs written in Java to the data in popular databases.

JNDI (Java Naming and Directory Interface) - enables Java platform-based applications to access multiple naming and directory services in a distributed network. - br>

message-driven processing - an approach used within the client/server computing model in which a client (for example, your Web browser) sends a service request in the form of a specially-formatted message to a program that acts as a request broker, handling messages from many clients intended for many different server applications.

messaging - the exchange of messages (specially-formatted data describing events, requests, and replies) to a messaging server, which acts as a message exchange program for client programs. There are two major messaging server models: the point-to-point model and the publish/subscribe model.

MQSeries - an IBM family of middleware.

MathML - an application of XML (Extensible Markup Language) designed to facilitate the use of mathematical expressions in Web pages.

middleware - any programming that serves to "glue together" or mediate between two separate and often already existing programs. Middleware components often uses messaging to communicate.

MySQL - an open source relational database management system (RDBMS) that uses Structured Query Language (SQL), the most popular language for adding, accessing, and processing data in a database.

NewsML - a standard way to describe news information content so that it can distributed and reused widely on Web sites and other media.

OASIS (Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards) - a nonprofit, international consortium whose goal is to promote the adoption of product-independent standards for information formats such as Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), Extensible Markup Language (XML), and Hypertext Markup Language (HTML).

on-demand computing - an increasingly popular enterprise model in which computing resources are made available to the user as needed. The resources may be maintained within the user's enterprise, or made available by a service provider.

Open Profiling Standard (OPS) - a proposed standard for how Web users can control the personal information they share with Web sites. OPS has a dual purpose: (1) to allow Web sites to personalize their pages for the individual user and (2) to allow users to control how much personal information they want to share with a Web site.

PMML (Predictive Modeling Markup Language) - an XML-based language that enables the definition and sharing of predictive models between applications. A predictive model is a statistical model that is designed to predict the likelihood of target occurences given established variables or factors.

Portal Markup Language - an application of XML used to create a portal Web site.

RDF Site Summary (RSS) - an application of XML that describes or other Web content that is available for "feeding" (distribution or syndication) from an online publisher to Web users.

Resource Description Framework (RDDF) - a general framework for how to describe any Internet resource such as a Web site and its content.

SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) - a way for a program running in one kind of operating system (such as Windows 2000) to communicate with a progam in the same or another kind of an operating system (such as Linux) by using the Web's Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)and XML as the mechanisms for information exchange.

SQL (Structured Query Language) - the most popular language for adding, accessing, and processing data in a database

Topic Map Query Language (TMQL) - an XML-based extension of SQL that was developed for use in meeting the specialized data access requirements of Topic Maps (TMs).

UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration) - an XML-based registry for businesses worldwide to list themselves on the Internet.

Visual J# - a set of programmming tools that allow developers to use the Java programming language to write applications that will run on Microsoft's .NET runtime platform.

XML (Extensible Markup Language) - a flexible way to create common information formats and share both the format and the data on the World Wide Web, intranets, and elsewhere.

XML Core Services (formerly MSXML) - an application for processing Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation (XSLT) in an XML file. Based on Microsoft's Component Object Model (COM), XML Core Services is essentially an application programming interface (API) to an XML parser and the XPath processor. The parser organizes the XML data into a tree structure for processing, and the processor converts the XML to HTML for display.

XPath - a language that describes a way to locate and process items in XML documents by using an addressing syntax based on a path through the document's logical structure or hierarchy.

XSL (Extensible Stylesheet Language) - a language for creating a style sheet that describes how data sent over the Web using the Extensible Markup Language (XML) is to be presented to the user.

XSL Transformations (XSLT) - a standard way to describe how to transform (change) the structure of one XML document into an XML document with a different structure.

This was first published in June 2006

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